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Robert Smirke. Lysander declaring his passion to Helena. Oil on panel with pencil underdrawing and border, ca. 1820-1825

November 2002
Jeremy Ehrlich, Folger Shakespeare Library.
Jessica Menter, student, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA.
Heather Bouley, student, West Springfield High School, Springfield, VA.

Plays/Scenes Covered
A Midsummer Night's Dream
What's On for Today and Why

Students will use online resources in order to examine patterns of imagery in A Midsummer Night's Dream. By comparing these patterns to those of other Shakespeare plays, the students will draw conclusions about the different reasons Shakespeare uses imagery in the play.


This lesson will take two class periods.

What You Need

Folger edition of A Midsummer Night's Dream
Available in Folger print edition and Folger Digital Texts

Internet-linked computer lab for the class period or available for homework

Optional: "There's No Plays Like Home" Handout
What To Do

1. Demonstrate the use of the online concordance at http://shakespeare.clusty.com. You might want to show students a variety of online concordances, such as the one at http://www.it.usyd.edu.au/~matty/Shakespeare/test.html.


Explain that a concordance groups together all the uses of each word in a piece of literature. Show students how to search for a particular word on the site.


2. Divide the students into pairs. Give each pair of students a set of images to explore in the play. Make sure they know they will have to look up all the different forms of the word: a student with the word "dream" may need to enter "dream", "dreams", "dreaming", etc. Possible sets of images to use include: dream; death/dead/die; live/life/living/alive; love/loves/lovers; day/night/sun/moon; sleep/rest/bed; eyes/see/look; spirit/fairy/fairies; or play/plays. More challenging image sets include: fair/foul or mentions of different animals: dog/cat/lion/mouse/creature/beast/bird/ass.


3. Have the students use the online concordance to examine their sets of images. At each stage, make them attempt to draw conclusions: what does this information tell them about what Shakespeare is trying to say with his imagery? First, have them find and examine the uses of their word(s) in the play. As a conclusion, they may note the relative frequency of words in the play: they may note the word "night" appears much more often than the word "day", giving the imagery of the play a decidedly dark feel.


4. Second, have them examine each use of the word in the context in the play in which it appears. Can they find any patterns in the way a word is used throughout the play? They might note that "play" is almost always used in the context of a dramatic performance, not in terms of having fun. Coax them to use this information to draw conclusions: what is the play doing by drawing attention to the fact that it is a play?


5. Third, have them go back to the concordance and compare Shakespeare's use of these words in A Midsummer Night's Dream to his use of them in some of the other plays he was writing around the same time. Before Midsummer, scholars think he wrote Love's Labour's Lost and Comedy of Errors. After Midsummer, scholars think he wrote Romeo and Juliet and Richard II. How is his use of imagery different in A Midsummer Night's Dream than in the other work he was doing at the time? What kinds of conclusions can students draw from that information? They might note that imagery of death, hate and night appear much more often than in the other two comedies written around the same time. How does this change the way they interpret the play?


6. Finally, have the students examine Shakespeare's use of these images within the context of his entire body of work. Students might note that the preponderance of dream imagery in the play. How might that work to change the way an audience interprets the play? What can students conclude about the reasons for the differences from the rest of the canon?


7. Have students report their findings to the whole group. Have groups compare other students' findings with their own to see if they can uncover any larger patterns of imagery in the play.


8. Optional extension: download and copy the 12-page handout "There's No Plays Like Home". This is a dramatic retelling of the Wizard of Oz story told entirely with lines from Shakespeare. It was written by Heather Bouley, a sophomore at West Springfield High School in 2000–-01. Bouley's class used online resources to identify Shakespearean lines relating to the Oz story. Have students read this play. Then, give them a well-known fairy tale or modern story to research online. For extra credit, see if students can retell this story using Shakespeare's language as Bouley has.

How Did It Go?
Were students able to draw conclusions from the information they received from the concordance website? Were they able to generate a discussion about the imagery in the play? Did the exercise show the students image patterns they had not seen before?

If you used this lesson, we would like to hear how it went and about any adaptations you made to suit the needs of YOUR students.

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